The following information WAS provided for training purposes. But now it will be used as consumer exposure purposes. To expose the regular consumer about the level of audio loudspeaker manufacture technology / limitations and hence reality.


Another objective is to let other engineers, more importantly bosses know that the public starts to aware of these matters and they had better start producing good products and not let die. Well, if this website can educate enough consumers???


It is hoped that these information will be useful to the readers so that they would think carefully before answering any questions, for accuracy and professionalism purposes.


If the answer cannot be backed by documented proof, please refrain from using it, unless it is extremely logical.




Whatever not said cannot be assumed i.e. donít put your own thoughts/idea into the explanation.


When there is the slightest confusion or question, please stop me and ask. Oh! we are not with each other now, errrrrrrrrrrr so read again, or errrrrrrrrrrrrrr email me.



  1. Loudspeaker

  2. Signal Path

  3. Anatomy

  4. Voice Coil

  5. Sound Representation on Scientific Terms

  6. 3D movement of 13.8Hz

  7. 2D movement 13.7Hz

  8. But no speaker is perfect

  9. Because of Cone Break-up

  10. Radiation is frequency dependent

  11. Radiation Field

  12. Therefore no speaker has flat frequency response

  13. Why do we need flat frequency response?



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